Cybersecurity Career Paths and Domains
Cybersecurity professions are not restricted to one route; they open up diverse opportunities once you begin the job. Therefore, it is similar to the way that data science or supply chain management have non-linear routes. Moreover, there are loads of positions with connected duties (net operations, programming, fiscal and hazard examination) that can open up a doorway to a junior-level cyber protection job.
“You can learn these competencies and then you can aggregate them together to take on more and more responsibility.”
Aspen Olmsted, an adjunct professor at New York University’s Tandon School of Engineering and instructor for the Cybersecurity Fundamentals MicroBachelors® Program through NYUx, commented on cybersecurity roles saying that they construct and enhance one another. An example of a path to take in cyber security is that of a host systems defender, where the focus is on protecting a server or a network defender, who focuses on protecting the incoming network. It’s possible to combine the roles of both into one job. You can acquire these abilities and then combine them to assume increasing levels of responsibility.
Did you know?
Having knowledge in computer science or IT fields helps facilitate the shift to cybersecurity, however, one must be proficient in systems and scripting to successfully make the switch.
When picturing cybersecurity positions, Red Team workers in the field of cybersecurity or ethical hackers who try to infiltrate and examine networks and system defense could be the first ones that come to mind. But that’s scratching the surface. There are multiple disciplines and disciplines inside the area, mainly split into two divisions: security and danger control and framework the board.
Security and Risk Management
Security and risk management necessitates firms to abide by security regulations and statutes and to complete danger analyses to uncover any weak points in physical possessions, software, and info. Fundamental roles in this particular area involve penetration testing and adhering to regulations. Compliance is regarded so highly that certain businesses now have special groups solely focused on security and managing data.
Common job titles within security and risk management include:
- Cybersecurity analyst
- Information security analyst
- Penetration tester
- Security compliance analyst
- Data security and privacy analyst
- Security specialist
Enterprises rely heavily on their networking infrastructures. Without adequate security measures in place, it is easy for cyber criminals to access and pilfer sensitive data and resources. Cybersecurity experts must build virtual private networks, firewalls, application security, and a lot more in order to stop security problems and data breaches from taking place.
Cybersecurity jobs responsible for protecting underlying networking infrastructure include:
- SOC analyst
- Security infrastructure engineer
- Security architect
- Cloud security engineer
- Cybersecurity engineer
What Skills Do I Need For Cybersecurity?
Although positions in cyber security could appear to be highly technical and involve a great deal of mathematics, cyber security professionals have a wide range of skills. They ought to possess both technical skills (networking, scripting, system administration) and people skills (communication, innovative thinking, paying attention).
“It’s the ability to constantly reinvent yourself, learn new things, and adapt to changes. That’s very important for cybersecurity specialists.”
Jonathan S. noted that when someone is working in this industry, they have to keep in mind that the knowledge they possess at one moment could be out-of-date or incorrect soon afterwards. Dr. Weissman is a high-level teacher at Rochester Institute of Technology, and additionally is an educator for the MicroMasters® Program in Cybersecurity that is hosted by RITx. The capacity to regularly revamp yourself, gain knowledge of new skills, and modify to fluctuations is essential. That’s very important for cybersecurity specialists.”
Core cybersecurity skills you need to excel in your career:
Cybersecurity technical skills
- Networking: Networking is the most critical cybersecurity skill. Whether you’re a penetration tester or a network engineer, you should know fundamental networking concepts such as how packets travel from your computer to other computers, OSI models, etc.
- System administration: Cybersecurity professionals need to master system administration. For example, can you manage what happens after downloading viruses on Windows or retrieve files off of a computer without knowing the log-in information?
- Linux: Linux is the operating system used on most network devices and security appliances. Familiarizing yourself with Linux allows you to collect security data and perform security hardening.
- Hacking: The ability to think like a cybercriminal is essential to identify any flaws in networks or security tools.
- Building virtual machines: Cybersecurity experts must master all virtual machine platforms to run malware analysis.
- Programming: You don’t need to be an expert programmer to become a cybersecurity professional, but you do need to approach problems with a programmatic mindset.
Writing scripts can be beneficial in comprehending the functioning of both hardware and software. Olmsted asserted the importance of comprehending enough coding, even if one does not have aspirations to be a programmer, to be able to comprehend code. Additionally, Olmsted instructs two NYU MicroBachelors programs, Computer Science Fundamentals and Intro to Databases.
Cybersecurity soft skills
- Ability to learn constantly: New threats are always emerging, which means you need to have the ability to constantly learn new skills and tools.
- Communication: You will spend a significant amount of time educating end-users to configure their machines or adopt security measures.
- Problem solving: Cybersecurity involves finding solutions to problems on a daily basis. If you do not enjoy problem solving, a career in cybersecurity is likely not for you.
Cybersecurity covers many thrilling and fulfilling job opportunities. The pay, responsibilities, and schooling needed for careers in cybersecurity vary. Continue reading to find out information on some of the most sought after roles in cybersecurity, comprising of typical activities, average remunerations, educational and training needs, and top-paying localities.
Chief Information Security Officer
CISOs can be found in powerful positions since they are responsible for keeping businesses’ data safe and dealing with technological and security issues. They work with other executives and IT security experts. These workers must possess sophisticated professional capabilities in the areas of business, technology, management, and organization. They must also stay up-to-date with what is happening in the area of information security.
Chief Information Security Officers are the ones in control of managing and protecting data on a practical level. They create protocols and regulations regarding data safety for companies and supervise groups of experts who spot and counteract potential security issues. Other usual responsibilities could include drafting budgets, conducting audits, and ensuring that the company observes applicable laws and regulations.
Most chief information security officers typically begin their occupations as IT experts or specialists with an undergraduate degree in a discipline such as cybersecurity, computer science, or IT. As they gain more expertise, credentials, and additional schooling, they can move up to more authoritative positions.
Cryptographers work to ensure that organizations can exchange data safely and securely. As the magnitude of cyber-assaults and security risks expand, the necessity for experts in cryptography who can guard sensitive data may intensify. Cryptographers are often employed by government bodies, banks, and medical centers. Companies like Amazon, Google, and Apple also hire cryptographers.
Cryptographers develop and crack codes, puzzles, and cryptograms. They use encryption techniques including writing algorithms, implementing security protocols, and employing cyphers; deciphering codes to access data; and forming cryptology theories. They assess any potential flaws, weaknesses, and potential issues by going over encrypted systems.
Professional cryptographers need advanced communication, analytical, and problem-solving skills. They must also have expertise in multiple areas of computing and information technology. They need to have knowledge of algorithms, data structures, different types of programming languages, and a variety of operating systems. Employers in this field typically prefer candidates who hold a master’s or doctorate degree as the job requires an advanced level of understanding.
Investigators specializing in digital forensics assist businesses in safeguarding their confidential data and information from cybercrime. Common tasks may involve instructing personnel on cybersecurity matters, recognizing security flaws, obtaining information from systems and gadgets, and restoring data systems to examine data intrusions. Sometimes forensics experts serve as expert witnesses in trials.
Forensics experts usually work with other IT security professionals. They regularly supply safety data to top brass, attorneys, and police officers. Employers include government agencies, large corporations, and law firms. People who have a great deal of experience and skill can serve as advisors. Forensics experts need a wide range of abilities for their work, depending on the role, but normally require a high degree of knowledge about computer applications, software and hardware, script, operating systems and coding principles.
In order to be considered for an introductory role in the field, a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in cybersecurity, computer science, or a related area, as well as some prior experience in the industry, would be essential. After gaining more expertise, receiving credentials, and advancing their educations, those specialized in forensic sciences can secure mid and upper-level jobs.
Missions performed by an incident responder may comprise of a response engineer, cyber incident responder, computer network defense incident responder, and forensics intrusion analyst. Incident response experts chiefly act in reaction to digital security episodes and data issues.
Professionals in this field work to enhance the safety, money, and standing of companies. The company also offers cybersecurity training to their personnel and can detect any potential risks. Common job responsibilities involve creating systems and protocols for ascertaining security infringements, executing risk evaluations, recreating code, and fabricating accounts for the police and/or executives.
Many incident responders have a Bachelor’s Degree at least, with some having accreditations like the Certified Intrusion Analyst or Certified Incident Handler. Securing a master’s certification in cybersecurity, computer forensics, or a related area can potentially create more work prospects with a higher salary.
Security evaluators discover loopholes in networks, data processes, and web-based programs. They assess existing safety measures and work to stop online attacks. Ethical hacking, which is also referred to as simulated cyberattacks, is employed by penetration testers to establish weak points without putting any data at risk.
Professionals who perform penetration testing are often employed by government bodies, healthcare systems, and finance companies. They need strong analytical, problem-solving, and hacking skills.
Those who possess top-notch hacking abilities may not need a college degree to get a job as a penetration tester. A bachelor’s degree in an area like computer science or cyber security, along with related experience, is ordinarily a necessity for basic job openings. Jobs at a senior management level could call for up to 10 years of experience and/or completion of a master’s degree.
Security administrators prevent organizations from cybersecurity threats and attacks. These specialists take up positions of authority, controlling the IT protection exercises of their associations. The group works together to draft rules and regulations, discover vulnerabilities in systems, implement firewalls, and react to security violations. Nearly all businesses that use computer networks have security administrators.
Typically, one needs to have a degree from a university in an area such as IT, computer technology, or data security to be eligible for a role like this. Nevertheless, these qualifications can depend on the position and organization. Higher-level management roles frequently necessitate the completion of a postgraduate degree within a concentration such as information systems or business administration. Many security administrators start out in entry-level IT support roles in order to gain professional experience. Earning certification can improve career prospects.
Security administrators must be knowledgeable and experienced in encryption, firewall and router set-ups, operating systems, and protocols. They also benefit from communication, problem-solving, and analytical skills.
Security analysts protect organizations’ data from cyberattacks. One usually needs to hold a bachelor’s degree in order to pursue a career in this field. The Bureau of Labor Statistics has indicated that those who are employed as information security analysts may bring in an average yearly pay of $103,590, and the expected job growth for this field is projected at 33% from 2020-2030. Security experts are employed by both public and private organizations engaged in business, technology, and finance.
Common tasks in this field include setting up safety computer programs, performing evaluations to discover potential security weaknesses, instructing staff members to utilize secure approaches, and forming policies and protocols. Security professionals typically collaborate with executives, managers, and staff to determine appropriate security plans and regulations.
A bachelor’s degree in a subject like computer science or information technology is the least level of education you need to be eligible to hold a security analyst role. Many people who become security analysts have first been software developers or computer programmers, and have usually worked in the role for 1-2 years prior to getting the security analyst job. Getting official qualifications within the business sector can also help people be eligible for security analyst positions.
Security architects create, devise and keep an eye on systems that can prevent potential computer security risks. They need to identify the advantages and disadvantages of their company’s computer systems, often creating new safety designs. Possible duties of the job may include creating a budget, helping to distribute personnel, supervising IT groups, and producing reports.
Individuals in this field should have an in-depth understanding of software and hardware development, writing code, anticipating and preventing issues, and networks and computers. This line of work emphasizes the need for excellent communication abilities, strong problem-solving aptitude, and exceptional analytical proficiency. Computer network architects have numerous prospects in the sphere of computer system configuration and telecommunications.
A security architect should have earned a minimum of a bachelor’s degree in areas such as computer science or information technology, as well as having relevant professional experience. Many enter the field with hacking experience. In order to move ahead in their sector, they routinely secure qualifications, gain postgraduate qualifications and take educational courses of ongoing duration. According to PayScale, IT security architects have an average yearly income of $125,463.
Security auditors evaluate and scrutinize the effectiveness and security of computer security systems. They possess comprehensive knowledge in the areas of cybersecurity, computer and information technologies, as well as penetration testing. They examine databases, conduct evaluations, prepare records, and suggest to corporations methods that can assist in making their computing systems stronger. Security reviewers must be familiar with the corporate rules and federal guidelines concerning computer security.